Joined yesterday, but can't complain... so here's a try at a first post instead. I like finding new, useful, ad-free resources on the Web, found this one today. "not-for-profit project dedicated to the exploration of curious and compelling works from the history of art, literature, and ideas." About page:

A self-hosted wiki that can integrate with a fediverse instance
Two days ago, I deployed [the official wiki]( for It's using django-wiki as a software, which other than being markdown-based and therefore helping lemmings easily migrate documentation over, provides python hooks for doing some really cool stuff. For example my current version is tied to my lemmy instance. This means that while everyone can read the wiki, only registered users of my instance can edit articles. This helps prevents the usual problem of open wikis, which is drive-by spam articles, and ensures that only people with interest in the wiki can use it. I plan to extend this integration in the future. I am thinking things like minimum account age to edit all or some pages, profile pages which enable even tighter integrations, being able to specify "trusted instances" which would allow edits from their users as well, and so on. But that's not all, the same approach I used, can also be used to integrate with any fediverse software, like mastodon. This means each instance could theoretically have its own wiki to extend the information adjacent to it. I'll soon (I hope) will provide an ansible playbook that anyone can use to deploy it which will also provide my custom code to integrate with lemmy.

Pi-Hole and Searxng Question
Hey all, I'm relatively new to self hosting. I set up a SearxNG on my local network and then recently set up Pi-Hole. Searx is running in a docker container and Pi-Hole is not. However, after setting up Pi-hole the IP I use to connect to Searx now directs to the default the default placeholder page. So my Pi-hole runs on and Searx used to run just on I'm guessing there's a config somewhere that I can change to make both work at once I'm just not sure where. Google was less than helpful (or maybe I'm an idiot lol) so I was hoping someone here may have run into a similar issue.

[IDEA] self-hosted advertisements for personal sites
so I was looking at someone's personal website from Mastodon, and noticed that they had banners to advertise other people's servers. while server lists like [fediring]( exist, I was thinking of a more automatic method of advertisement within someone's website. the concept is this: people could store advertisements (small banners, gifs) on their websites with a server and people willing to embed them could use an API to retrieve a random ad onto their website. people would self-host their ads and "federate" with other websites to embed other ads on their website. not sure if this would scale up as well, though. what do you think? just curious on lemmy's POV **edit**: going by the comments, this idea is quite flawed and webrings (in small sizes) are a better approach. thanks for the help

Integrating Pi-hole on Proxmox with a Separate Subnet
Hello everyone, I hope you're all doing well. I'm reaching out for some guidance on a network project I've been working on. Currently, my setup includes: - **OPNsense** Firewall: This is running smoothly and is the primary gateway for my network. - **Proxmox** Server: I'm in the process of integrating this. It has a single Ethernet port for network connectivity. My primary goal is to deploy a **Pi-hole** instance on the Proxmox server. I'm still weighing whether to go with a Docker container or a standalone VM for this. Here's the crux: My existing network devices operate in the `` IP range. I'd like the Pi-hole to be on a different subnet, specifically ``. This move is mainly for organization and segmentation purposes. Considering the single Ethernet port on the Proxmox server and my intended setup, is this feasible? Moreover, are there specific challenges or configurations I should be aware of? Any insights, advice, or shared experiences would be invaluable. Thank you for your collective wisdom and time!

Open hardware single board computer server recommendations?
Hi, I am looking for a SBC to self host stuff on. I would like it to be somewhat open hardware (manufacturer provides schematics and drivers are open source). Which is why I initially wanted to buy a banana-pi router but after reading a post in this /c/ I found that mainline linux support is fairly rare in these arm/riscv SBCs. So I was hoping someone more knowledgeable would help me find some options. Here are my "wants": + Low power drain + Open source hardware and software + Mainline linux support + 2 ethernet ports, at least 1Gb + at least 2GB RAM - could do with 1GB I suppose + a reasonable way to connect 2 SSDs and 2 HDDs - ie. 4 sata ports or one pcie port (not through USB) + EU seller. Not required but I hate dealing with import taxes and I like guarantees + Finally I need it to have "wake on power", so that it can start automatically after power outage The more I search the internet, the more it seems that this mythical computer does not exist but maybe someone knows more than me. Thanks for your replies. Edit: I'm likely going to settle with the Visionfive 2 since it has official ubuntu support and I won't have to rely on some hacky linux image provided by the manufacturer. It has 2 LAN ports and an M.2 NVME which I'm gonna split into 4 SATAs. Also 8GB RAM is plenty for the lightweight stuff I want to host, maybe even Nextcloud won't be *that* painful. Final note: I'm actually not sure how much is the Visionfive 2 open-source but it seems better than intel and AMD stuff so I'm willing to compromise since I actually want to buy something that exists. But anyone reading this in the future beware that I don't know whether it's really open source to the last logic gate. (likely not)

Stuck at 0% Progress with qBittorrent on Torrent/Media Server Setup - Seeking Help and Insights
Hello everyone, I've been working on setting up a torrent/media server on an old PC. Everything works near perfectly. However, I'm encountering an issue where qBittorrent gets stuck at 0% progress and just says 'Downloading Metadata'. I've tried various solutions, including disabling the VPN, and even attempting to download it on my Windows 11 PC (both with and without a VPN). I've tried disabling my Windows 11 firewall and even tried Deluge. Unfortunately, none of these solutions have resolved the problem. I'm struggling to pinpoint the root cause. Any insights or suggestions would be greatly appreciated. I've tried a few different torrents that Prowlarr has fetched, but the one I've been trying without a VPN is the one from []( EDIT: Was able to figure out a solution. Not sure why but switching from Wireguard to OpenVPN seems to have fixed the issue..

Is it better to put OpenVPN (for PIA) on my OPNsense router, as an LXC on Proxmox, or the (soon to be deprecated) feature in my TrueNAS Scale VM?
I was going to use the built-in OpenVPN in TrueNAS until I found out it's going to be deprecated. I only really need it for the qbitorrent/transmission and prowlarr/jackett (haven't decided yet) apps in TrueNAS, so I don't know what the next best option is. I have found plenty of documentation on how to use the integrated OpenVPN feature of TrueNAS, but since the announcement of it's deprecation and future elimination is only ~2 months old, I haven't found any new documentation yet on alternate methods. I see stuff about tailscale but that doesn't seem to be what I'm trying to do. Thanks.

Shoutout to Wizarr Devs for being open to create a lemmy community.
I was on their discord and saw that they were creating their subreddit and requested if they could also add a lemmy community. Dev was very open to take a look and will be opening a poll to see what instance they will create their community. For those who don't know what Wizarr is, they are part of the arr family and help in creating invations for your plex and jellyfin server. I am posting because I am doing my part on promoting lemmy! Link is below. Discord

Hi, I have a Pi-Hole set up on my home network, which I access from anywhere through a SWAG reverse proxy at ``. I have set up a local DNS record in Pi-Hole to point `` to the local IP of the SWAG server. Access from anywhere (local or not) works well. It's just that when I am accessing some services (including the Pi-Hole) from my desktop through the reverse proxy via the DNS record (i.e. on the LAN), the Pi-Hole log gets completely spammed with requests like in the attached image. To be clear, I cropped the image, but it is pages and pages of the same. This is also the case for e.g. the qBittorrent Docker container I have set-up. So I guess it's for 'live' pages which update their stats continuously, which makes sense. But the Pi-Hole log is unusable in this state. This does not occur when I am accessing the services externally, through the same reverse proxy, or when I access them locally with their local IP. The thing is, I have already selected `Never forward non-FQDN A and AAAA queries` in the Pi-Hole settings. I also have `Never forward reverse lookups for private IP ranges`, `Use DNSSEC`, and `Allow only local requests`, but they seem less relevant. The Pi-Hole, SWAG server, and PC I am accessing them from are three different machines on my LAN. Any way to filter out just those queries? I obviously want to preserve all the other legitimate queries coming from my desktop. EDIT: Thanks for the responses. Unfortunately the problem persists, but I discovered something new. This only happens when accessing the page from Firefox desktop; not another desktop browser, and not Firefox Android. So actually it seems to be a Firefox problem, not a Pi-Hole one. I thought this might have something to do with Firefox's DNS-over-HTTPS, so I tried both adding an exception for my domain name, and disabling it altogether, but that didn't solve it..

HomeServer main storage upgrade
Hello selfhosters! I'v small homeServer (Dell Wyse 5070) and I'm thinking about upgrade of main SSD M.2 storage. Currently most of my services are docker containers. During upgrade I want to refresh whole setup and learn ansible a bit during the process. I've got few services that I want to avoid to stop for hours/days which could take me to set the whole server from scratch in the new way (NextCloud, Home Assistant, Matrix), all of them used locally (trough Tailscale) by my family. I'm thinkging about keeping them running, by connecting old SSD M.2 drive to my laptop and run inside VM. Do you think that will be doable / what kind of troubles I can get through that process? Asking about that "keeping services on my laptop" think. With refresh of server it will of course be the journey with troubles, but I will have time for that, when crucial services will be running on different machine.

Serves mainly as a NAS, but also as the host for Plex, HomeAssistant and some other stuff.

How does the Raspberry Pi 5 compare to the Orange Pi 5?
I've seen RPi5 is only quad-core while OPi5 is octa-core. RPi5 has better connectivity with Wifi and Bluetooth. Are there any other details I've missed?

wireguard on freebsd
I am trying to setup a wireguard server on freebsd using [this guide]( the only thing i've done different is make the AllowedIPs I seem to have messed something up because when I have wireguard running, i cannot ping or curl anything from the server. It doesn't take down the machine though, I am still able to ssh into the server. I still have yet to get the client to actually connect, but i assume this networking issue is a potential cause. googling doesn't seem to help me find anyone with my same issue. my wg0.conf is as follows >[Interface] >Address = # address the server will bind to >ListenPort = 51820 # listener port >PrivateKey = [redacted] > >[Peer] #phone >AllowedIPs = >PreSharedKey = [redacted] >PublicKey = [redacted]

cross-posted from: > I had a hard time setting up the new sync server for Firefox which is written in Rust because the documentation is very bad. > > After a lot of try and error and reading comments of people in the issue tracker I finally was able to set it up and run it successfully. > > Mostly for my future self, but perhaps it also helps other people I documented it with help of a README and a docker-compose.yaml which makes it easy for me to upgrade if necessary and also to store all the other config files with examples.

Just a hint for people searching a tiny selfhosted messenger with encryption and apps for iOS and android.

The [most requested feature]( for Immich has just been implemented [by this guy](! Now using Immich makes much more sense since you'll be able to sync with Immich your existing photo galleries!

OpenVPN to server, then ExpressVPN to the outside?
I use openvpn to connect to my server at home. When I surf the Internet or any of my apps on my phone go to the Internet while I'm on the VPN it's going out to the internet from my server. Does anybody know a way to set it up so that whatever goes out from that server goes through expressvpn? I can't seem to get it to work on the router because openvpn then cannot connect to my server.

Can I attach a 10GBase-LR to QSFP-40G-LR4 (CWDM)?
cross-posted from: > The 10GBase-LR is 1310nm and the QSFP-40G-LR4 CWDM channels are 1271, 1291, 1311 and 1331 nm. Are the 1310nm and 3rd channel 1311nm technically compatible? > > I have a 10Gb and (will eventually have) a 40Gb switch both fitted with basic LR (Q)SFP+ transceivers and want to know if I can directly connect them or will I have to use an adapter to fit an SFP+ in an QSFP+ port? > > I'm looking at using the XQX2502 QSFP+. EDIT: The goal of this exercise is I’m trying to work out if I can make an easily interoperable system where a singlemode fiber wall jack fed from a 40G switch can act as a both a 10G or 40G port as needed.

PasswordManagement: which one of these options would you choose?
**Objective:** Secure & private password management, prevent anyone from stealing your passwords. **Option 1:** Store Keepass PW file in personal cloud service like OneDrive/GoogleDrive/etc , download file, use KeepassXC to Open **Option 2:** Use ProtonPass or similar solution like Bitwarden **Option 3:** Host a solution like Vaultwarden Which would do you choose? Are there more options ? Assume strong masterpassword and strong technical skills

how to boot into proxmox “safe mode”? (recovering botched instance)
Hey! So i recently received a new node that i was looking to turn into a proxmox host with pfsense on it (lets call it node B) I created a new cluster on another proxmox node (node A) and added node B i was setting up pfsense on node B, IPs everywhere got a bit messed up, and neither node could talk to the other, i tried exiting the cluster to reenter but i messed it up worse, so i reinstalled that node and went ahead with a fresh pfsense setup after a couple days of working on and off on it, i finally got it working well enough that i went to setup vlans for my node A (the master node of the cluster, that used to have node B which doesnt exist anymore), i couldnt get any video output, which was weird, nothing seemed to work, so i forced reboot (yup i suck) now when it boots up, its stuck on “initializing ram disks…”, and i can’t see any other method than reinstalling but i was still hoping for being able to fix it or at least recover /etc/pve i have all the vms backed up but i just dont want to go reconfiguring from scratch what i suspect is either: - the cluster having a no longer existing node throws some error (that i dont know where to get) - the reboot was a bad idea, though that doesn’t explain why it was frozen in the first place (knowing i didnt touch it for a few days) - i have a few backups to a separate nas which was inaccessible during these days, maybe it was stuck someway Ive tried the following a few guides online but they all seem to assume i somehow have access to the command line, which is not the case, but i was wondering if there’s still someway i can get in, some sort of recovery/safe mode? some of my theories are batshit crazy but im just trying to give you a few pointers ive ran memory and disk checks on the uefi let me know if there any more info that could help investigate this further

Do any of you use Raspberry Pi’s ?
For those of you who use Raspberry Pi’s in your home environment, I’m curious as to what you use them for. What applications are you running on them? Do you have your Pi’s setup in a cluster?

Giving up on selfhosted email / Any sane email setups?
So I've been running self-hosted email using Mailu for a couple of months (after migrating out of Google Workspace). Today it turned that although my server seems to be capable of sending and receiving emails, it also seems to be used by spammers. I've stumbled upon this accidentally by looking through logs. This seems to have been going on for all this time (first "unknown" access happened just a couple of hours after I've set everything up). While browsing the logs there were just so many crazy things happening - the incoming connections were coming through some kind of proxy built-in to Mailu, so I couldn't even figure out what was their source IP. I have no idea why they could send emails without authorization - the server was not a relay. Every spammy email also got maximum spam score - which is great - but not very useful since SMTP agent ignored it and proceeded to send it out. Debugging was difficult because every service was running in a different container and they were all hooked up in a way that involved (in addition to the already mentioned proxy) bridges, virtual ethernet interfaces and a jungle of iptables-based NAT that was actually nft under the hood. Nothing in this architecture was actually documented anywhere, no network diagrams or anything - everything has to be inferred from netfilter rulesets. For some reason "docker compose" left some configuration mess during the "down" step and I couldn't "docker compose up" afterwards. This means that every change in configuration required a full OS reboot to be applied. Finally, the server kept retrying to send the spammy emails for hours so even after (hypothetically) fixing all the configuration issues, it would still be impossible to tell whether they really were fixed because the spammy emails that were submitted before the fix already got into the retry loop. I have worked on obfuscation technologies and I'm honestly impressed by the state of email servers. I have temporarily moved back to Google Workspace but I'm still on the lookout for alternatives. Do you know of any email server that could be described as simple? Ideally a single binary with sane defaults, similarly to what dnsmasq is for DNS+DHCP?

OpenSubtitles Hostility
So this isn't meant to be a post bashing the devs/owner of OpenSubtitles. This is meant simply as awareness. A few months ago I signed up for the VIP tier at OST ($5/mo for 1000 downloads a day) for a bit to populate my catalogue of videos with subtitles as my father uses my Jellyfin server and he's lost a lot of his hearing. I also wanted to support the development a bit. At first the service seemed to be downloading a bit, but then it stopped. I waited a few days and it would download at most one or two a day (despite a few thousand videos not having any subtitles). I look around online and found that OST had changed their API and the Jellyfin plugin still needed to catch-up with a newer release. No big deal, so I just waited. Then the update released which specifically stated that the changes to the API calls were made. I waited a few days, nothing. I uninstalled the OST plugin and reinstalled, still nothing. So I figured something was wrong either on my end or the server-side, but I didn't want to bother getting into it. I've been planning to rebuild my Jellyfin server with newer hardware with HW acceleration for decoding and encoding. I sent an email to OST support explaining what I've been seeing and asked if I could get a refund. The person who responded asked for logs so that they could help troubleshoot. So I obliged. ![Email response from OpenSubtitles support confirming there was an issue]( They said it wasn't much help and to get even more logs. Which I provided again. ![Screenshot of user CeeBee providing logs via email to OpenSubtitles support]( I even removed over 14 thousand "[query]" lines to make the logs more readable. They said there wasn't anything there that was useful, and asked me to try again. I indicated that Jellyfin has a scheduled job that checks for missing subtitles and pulls as needed once a day. But I said that at this point I'm just looking for the refund. A while passes by but then I get a notification that the subscription is going to be renewed again, so I cancelled before that happened and reached out again about the refund. At this point it was more about the principle of the matter as I originally just asked for a refund and that got side-stepped into a support request. Then I got this as a response: ![Email response from OpenSubtitles support being aggressive and accusatory]( Which resulted in this: ![Email response from OpenSubtitles support saying "I'm tired of you" and deleted my account]( I waited over two weeks to write this post. I wanted to wait and see if somebody replied back to me with even just an apology or something. If they had originally told me that doing refunds is hassle for them I would have let it go. But telling me off and then deleting my account is just... special. I was astonished at the response and cannot fathom that being the response from any company taking payments for a service. And I'm not holding a grudge of any kind and I get it, I used to do IT support and some days can be tough dealing with annoying emails. But in my defence all I asked for was a refund because something wasn't working. In any case, I just wanted to bring this to the attention of the Self-hosting community so that others can make more informed decisions. To be clear, I'm not advocating anyone to pull support. In face I think they should have more support as it's an invaluable service. Despite the treatment I still plan on getting the VIP subscription again at some point after I rebuild my Jellyfin server. But I also don't think that customers should be treated like this.

Self-hosted Vercel/Netlify/Cloudflare alternative?
I’m looking for a simple way to manage and deploy services/web apps to a machine of mine. I want the least amount of maintenance as possible, easy updates, and easy deployment as much as possible (obviously you're paying for convenience with those services so it can only be so easy). I’m hoping for a solid web UI to manage everything through. Has anyone here had a good experience with anything like this on their own machines?

Can I/Should I upgrade RAM past my machine’s recommended specs?
Hi Self Hosting Lemmings! I'm looking to upgrade the RAM in my 3-node proxmox cluster and could use some advice. I have 3 [HP ProDesk 600 G3 Mini]( PCs that claim to support up to 32GB of RAM. However, I would really like to upgrade to 2x32GB for 64GB total. Is it possible to run with more RAM than the recommended amount? If so, are there any problems I might run into? Any insight is greatly appreciated, thanks!

Lemmy Schedule - app for scheduling posts and getting notified of new posts
My [Lemmy Schedule]( app now includes the option to get notified of new posts in a specific community! In case you haven't heard about the app before, here's what other things it can do: - schedule a post and post it to multiple communities - you can upload an image as well and choose between uploading to your Lemmy instance or to Imgur - create a recurring post that gets posted at a specific date and time (especially useful for daily/weekly/monthly/end-of-month threads) - schedule pinning and unpinning of posts (instance and community) - the pinning and unpinning can be specified as part of creating a post - the aforementioned notifications about unread posts from a specific community (useful for mods) - can be also set using a recurring schedule, so you can get the report daily/weekly/monthly etc. To learn more, visit the ! community. P.S. It's [open source]( and can be [self-hosted using docker](!

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Lemme BE 0.19 issues
Just a heads up -- having a front page catastrophic error in my Lemmy containers: ``` dessalines/lemmy-ui latest 5c9f05cd560a 39 hours ago 541MB dessalines/lemmy latest 7e2eba20fe06 2 days ago 184MB ``` I am logging the following error on a root page load: ``` API error: FetchError: request to http://lemmy:8536/api/v3/site? failed, reason: getaddrinfo ENOTFOUND lemmy ``` ```bash CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES bb9796b61988 nginx:1-alpine "/docker-entrypoint.…" 13 minutes ago Up 13 minutes 80/tcp,>8536/tcp, :::80->8536/tcp lemmy-proxy-1 bf01a6e036ad dessalines/lemmy-ui "docker-entrypoint.s…" 13 minutes ago Up 13 minutes 1234/tcp lemmy-lemmy-ui-1 048d83dfa060 dessalines/lemmy "/app/lemmy" 13 minutes ago Restarting (1) 34 seconds ago lemmy-lemmy-1 1bd0b69dc05d mwader/postfix-relay "/root/run" 13 minutes ago Up 13 minutes 25/tcp lemmy-postfix-1 d6570da3a505 asonix/pictrs:0.4.0-rc.7 "/sbin/tini -- /usr/…" 13 minutes ago Restarting (1) 35 seconds ago lemmy-pictrs-1 84d376fa813a postgres:15-alpine "docker-entrypoint.s…" 13 minutes ago Up 13 minutes 5432/tcp lemmy-postgres-1 ``` I see the lemmy container unable to start. Restarting the docker containers in non-daemon mode I get the following logged, which explains why the lemmy container is crashing: ``` lemmy-postfix-1 | 2023-09-29T11:18:15.825112+00:00 1bd0b69dc05d postfix/master[149]: daemon started -- version 3.4.23, configuration /etc/postfix lemmy-postgres-1 | 2023-09-29 11:18:15.856 UTC [32] ERROR: column person.admin does not exist at character 394 lemmy-postgres-1 | 2023-09-29 11:18:15.856 UTC [32] STATEMENT: SELECT "person"."id", "person"."name", "person"."display_name", "person"."avatar", "person"."banned", "person"."published", "person"."updated", "person"."actor_id", "person"."bio", "person"."local", "person"."private_key", "person"."public_key", "person"."last_refreshed_at", "person"."banner", "person"."deleted", "person"."inbox_url", "person"."shared_inbox_url", "person"."matrix_user_id", "person"."admin", "person"."bot_account", "person"."ban_expires", "person"."instance_id" FROM "person" WHERE (("person"."actor_id" LIKE $1) AND ("person"."local" = $2)) lemmy-lemmy-1 | Error: lemmy-lemmy-1 | LemmyError lemmy-lemmy-1 | { lemmy-lemmy-1 | message lemmy-lemmy-1 | : lemmy-lemmy-1 | None lemmy-lemmy-1 | , lemmy-lemmy-1 | inner lemmy-lemmy-1 | : lemmy-lemmy-1 | column person.admin does not exist, context: SpanTrace lemmy-lemmy-1 | [ lemmy-lemmy-1 | ] lemmy-lemmy-1 | } lemmy-lemmy-1 | lemmy-lemmy-1 | lemmy-pictrs-1 exited with code 1 lemmy-lemmy-1 exited with code 1 ``` Just a heads up -- not a bug report.

[help]How to solve identic DNS address from router through wireguard vpn
So I'm currently away from home and now I'm using the internet from another router. My problem is that I can't access my services because the default DNS from this router is and the DNS that I use to access my services through wireguard is also The wireguard service comes from my own router using Opnsense and I have setup unbound+Adguard DNS as by default so I don't know how can I solve this problem I tried setting my computer to listen to when connected to this wifi but when I enable my wireguard it still doesn't connect to my services I also tried enabling my Adguard to listen to All interfaces so it would enable the IP as a DNS but I don't know much about Opnsense so it also didn't work when I changed the wireguard config file to listen to My wireguard tunnel IP is set to 10.50.50.&& when connected to my router and the default IP when connected directly at home is the 192.168.1.&& My phone can connect to the wireguard normally even when connected to this wifi Does anyone had also this same problem as me could help me a little? Thank you. Sorry for the bad english [Conclusion] i went looking into the wireguard subreddit for a smillar problem as mine and found that if the outside router uses as the default gateway & dns when trying to connect to my tunnel ip the browser will search on the main router instead of my wireguard tunnel. I'm going to need to change my ip addresses to another ip instead of the default 192.168 [Post](

Piggybacking off the selfhosting email post earlier, does anyone have experience self hosting anon addy?
I'd really like to use the service and in fact I wish I'd been using it forever. But I want to do it right and self host it. It's just, maybe the most complicated thing I've ever seen. Does it require self hosting your own email server as well? If you already own a domain, does that make the process easier? is Anon Addy the only service like this? Also I'd love to integrate with bitwarden, so when I create a new account for some website, I can automatically create a new email address. (idk if there's any reason to do this, just think it could be cool) To piggyback further, I've been wondering if having my own domain would help me get around my double nat issue not allowing me to make reverse proxies. Thanks in advance to the community! Edit: I think I have a solution! Bitwarden actually [has these integrations]( already and it's relatively new. duckduck go just doesn't work. I tried forwardemail and that site is filled with dark patterns so you think the free account is worth a damn until you're already invested time into setting it up. At the last minute it tells you you can't use it with bitwarden on the free account. The others are at least up front about their pricing. doesn't even have a pricing page. Sending emails from the masked addresses is also paywalled. pretty much all functionality on is paywalled, but they hide it from you the best they can, so fuck that company. I spoke too soon. There's no option that isn't paid. So I guess back to self hosting anonaddy Edit: I finally got duckduckgo email working with bitwarden integration. It now generates a random email for me automatically! **Edit edit: Found a good solution:** There are two solid solutions I think for this problem: Bitwarden + SimpleLogin integration. Ends up being about $40/year. The SimpleLogin integration is more limited as it just generates a generic hash. Pass gives you more flexibility - it adds the domain followed by a hash. It's cheaper by a few bucks if you pay per year. or Proton Pass ($48/year, or $36/year if paying for 2 years, or if you have proton unlimited ($8/mo), it's included What' nice is that the email address alias generator is built in and has a lot more options. It's cheaper if you pay for 2 years or already have proton unlimited. Both have stellar track records.

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Help Request - Proxmox Partitions/Boot - CloverBootLoader
Sorry for the wall of text... This ended up a lot longer than I thought it would... TL:DR - Looking for guide to partitioning/booting and/or help with Clover config. ### Background I recently purchased a used Dell PowerEdge R730xd to use as a home lab/self-hosting project. The intention being I would install Proxmox and play around with it and see what I wanted to add in to it later. As the server did not include any drives, I figured I would purchase a PCIe to NVMe adapter to work as the "boot" drives for the system and then fill up the 24 drive bays over time if I decided I wanted to continue with the setup. I purchased one of the [Asus Hyper M.2 x16 PCIe NVMe cards]( that supports up to 4 drives. To go along with it, I purchased 2x [1TB Samsung 980 Pros]( I had done some research ahead of time knowing this might cause some issues, but it appeared that they could be worked through. ### Installation I installed the drives and card and turned on PCIe bifurcation for the slot. The server/iDRAC didn't see the devices, but this was expected based on prior research. Using Dell's iDRAC, I was able to virtually attach the Proxmox .iso and boot into the installer just fine. For my Proxmox install, I chose to use "zfs (RAID1)" with both 980's as the drives. Installation appeared to go through without a problem and I rebooted to finalize the install. At this point, the server does not recognize a boot option and hangs in the POST menu asking what to do. ### Problem and Possible Solution I was aware this might be an issue. From what I've gathered, the server won't boot because of them being NVMe in the PCIe slots. Plus the fact that they don't even appear in iDRAC or BIOs confirms this. I had discovered this is a common issue and that people suggest using [Clover]( as a way to "jump start" the boot process. I found [this guide]( where someone appears to have gone through a very similar process (although for VMware ESXi) that seemed to have enough clues to what I'd need to do. I installed Clover to a flash drive and did the steps to move in the nvme drivers, booted into Clover, and created the "preboot.log" file. I then started to edit/create the config.plist file as they described in the guide. This is the stage where I ran into problems... ### Troubleshooting and Where I Need Help When I opened the preboot.log file and did the search for "nvme", I found multiple listings. (Copy of the preboot section below for reference.) This is where my understanding of things starts to run out and I need help. There are 8x volumes with NVMe being referenced. (The USB listings I assume are from the Clover boot media.) Just looking at the numbers, I think this means there are 4 partitions per physical drive? I assume that the RAID1 install means things are duplicated between the 2 drives. I did some more research and found [this guide]( on the Proxmox forums. They mention starting into the Proxmox installer and doing a debug install to run fdisk and blkid to get the PARTUUID. The second post mentions a situation that sounded exactly like mine and provided a config file with some additional options. I got into the debug menu and ran fdisk and blkid (results copied below). This again is where I struggle to understand what I am seeing because of my lack of understanding of file-structures/partitioning/boot records. ### The Request(s) What I was hoping to find out from this post was a few things. 1. Can someone explain the different pieces of information from the fdisk and blkid commands and preboot.log? I've done some work with fixing my other Linux server in the past and remember seeing some of this, but I never fully "learned" what I was seeing. If someone has a link that explains the columns, labels, under-lying concepts, etc, that'd be great! I wasn't able to find one and I think it's because I don't know enough to even form a good query... 2. Hopefully someone out there has experienced this problem and can look at what I've got and tell me what I've done wrong. I feel like I am close, but just missing/not understanding something. I fully assume I've either used the incorrect volume keys for my config, or something else in the config file. I'm leaning on the former, hence point 1. 3. If anyone has a "better" way to get Proxmox to boot with my current hardware, I'd like to hear it. My plan was to get Clover working and install that on the vFlash card in the server and just have that jump start the boot on a reboot. 4. Hopefully this can serve as a guide/help someone else out there. Let me know if you need more information. I am posting this kind of late so I might not get back to your question(s) until tomorrow. #### fdisk (Please note that I had to manually type this as I only had a screenshot that I couldn't get to upload. There might be typos.) ``` fdisk -l Disk /dev/nvme0n1: 932GB, 1000204886016 bytes, 1953525168 sectors 121126 cylinders, 256 heads, 63 sectors/track Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Device Boot StartCHS EndCHS StartLBA EndLBA Sectors Size ID Type /dev/nvme0n1p1 0,0,2 1023,255,63 1 1953525167 1953525167 931G ee EFI GPT Disk /dev/nvme1n1: 932GB, 1000204886016 bytes, 1953525168 sectors 121126 cylinders, 256 heads, 63 sectors/track Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Device Boot StartCHS EndCHS StartLBA EndLBA Sectors Size ID Type /dev/nvme1n1p1 0,0,2 1023,255,63 1 1953525167 1953525167 931G ee EFI GPT ``` #### blkid (Please note that I had to manually type this as I only had a screenshot that I couldn’t get to upload. There might be typos.) ``` blkid /dev/loop1: TYPE="squashfs" /dev/nvme0n1p3: LABEL="rpool" UUID="3906746074802172538" UUID_SUB="7826638652184430782" BLOCK_SIZE="4096" TYPE="zfs_member" PARTUUID="c182c6d2-6abb-40f7-a204-967a2b6029cc" /dev/nvme0n1p2: UUID="63F3-E64B" BLOCK_SIZE="512" TYPE="vfat" PARTUUID="06fc76a4-ed48-4f0e-84ed-f602f5962051" /dev/sr0: BLOCK_SIZE="2048" UUID="2023-06-22-14-56-03-00" LABEL="PVE" TYPE="iso96660" PTTYPE="PMBR" /dev/loop0: TYPE="squashfs" /dev/nvme1n1p2: UUID="63F6-0CF7" BLOCK_SIZE="512" TYPE="vfat" PARTUUID="8231936a-7b2c-4a96-97d6-b80393a3e7a1" /dev/nvme1n1p3: LABEL="rpool" UUID="3906746074802172538" UUID_SUB="11940256894351019100" BLOCK_SIZE="4096" TYPE="zfs_member" PARTUUID="f57fc276-bca6-4779-a161-ebe79db3275e" /dev/nvme0n1p1: PARTUUID="7c249bb3-b7fb-4ebf-a5ae-8d3b9b4b9ab5" /dev/nvme1n1p1: PARTUUID="0a796a75-41a4-4f57-9c1f-97817bb30963" ``` #### preboot.log ``` 117:268 0:000 === [ ScanVolumes ] ============================= 117:268 0:000 Found 11 volumes with blockIO 117:268 0:000 - [00]: Volume: PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1A,0x0)\USB(0x0,0x0)\USB(0x4,0x0)\USB(0x0,0x0) 117:273 0:005 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 117:273 0:000 - [01]: Volume: PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1A,0x0)\USB(0x0,0x0)\USB(0x4,0x0)\USB(0x0,0x0)\HD(1,MBR,0x3522AA59,0x3F,0x64000) 117:276 0:003 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 117:276 0:000 label : BDU 117:276 0:000 This is SelfVolume !! 117:276 0:000 - [02]: Volume: PciRoot(0x0)\Pci(0x1A,0x0)\USB(0x0,0x0)\USB(0x4,0x0)\USB(0x0,0x0)\HD(2,MBR,0x3522AA59,0x6403F,0x70CFC1) 117:280 0:003 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 117:280 0:000 - [03]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x0)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,BD-15-A3-31-B6-38-25-00) 117:280 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable Linux (grub,linux) 117:280 0:000 - [04]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x0)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,BD-15-A3-31-B6-38-25-00)\HD(1,GPT,7C249BB3-B7FB-4EBF-A5AE-8D3B9B4B9AB5,0x22,0x7DE) 117:280 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 117:280 0:000 - [05]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x0)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,BD-15-A3-31-B6-38-25-00)\HD(2,GPT,06FC76A4-ED48-4F0E-84ED-F602F5962051,0x800,0x200000) 117:281 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 117:283 0:002 label : EFI 117:283 0:000 - [06]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x0)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,BD-15-A3-31-B6-38-25-00)\HD(3,GPT,C182C6D2-6ABB-40F7-A204-967A2B6029CC,0x200800,0x7450658F) 117:283 0:000 - [07]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x1)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,F1-1B-A3-31-B6-38-25-00) 117:283 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable Linux (grub,linux) 117:283 0:000 - [08]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x1)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,F1-1B-A3-31-B6-38-25-00)\HD(1,GPT,0A796A75-41A4-4F57-9C1F-97817BB30963,0x22,0x7DE) 117:283 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 117:283 0:000 - [09]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x1)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,F1-1B-A3-31-B6-38-25-00)\HD(2,GPT,8231936A-7B2C-4A96-97D6-B80393A3E7A1,0x800,0x200000) 117:283 0:000 Result of bootcode detection: bootable unknown (legacy) 117:286 0:002 label : EFI 117:286 0:000 - [10]: Volume: PciRoot(0x1)\Pci(0x2,0x1)\Pci(0x0,0x0)\NVMe(0x1,F1-1B-A3-31-B6-38-25-00)\HD(3,GPT,F57FC276-BCA6-4779-A161-EBE79DB3275E,0x200800,0x7450658F) ``` #### config.plist ``` Boot Timeout 5 DefaultVolume LastBootedVolume GUI Custom Entries Path \EFI\systemd\systemd-bootx64.efi Title ProxMox Type Linux Volume 06FC76A4-ED48-4F0E-84ED-F602F5962051 VolumeType Internal Path \EFI\systemd\systemd-bootx64.efi Title ProxMox Type Linux Volume 8231936A-7B2C-4A96-97D6-B80393A3E7A1 VolumeType Internal ```

If one hosts a Lemmy instance, do they need to also host, and/or link to the source code even if they have made no changes to it?
Lemmy is licensed under the AGPLv3. I don't want to rely solely on my own legal interpretation of the license, so I'm wondering if anyone has any explicit knowledge on the matter. As an aside, am I correct in assuming that, if someone *does* make changes to the source code, they *must* host, and link to it? **EDIT (2023-09-27T22:22Z):** I am just now seeing that at the bottom of a Lemmy instance's site, there is a link that says "Code". It appears that this is handled automatically.

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proxmox: Do you use a headless Linux OS as a VM or one with a GUI?
Hi. Since yesterday i selfhosted all my stuff with a raspberry pi and two odroids. Everything works ok, but after i read about a few apps that are not supported by the arm-architecture of the SBCs and about the advantages of the backup-solution in proxmox, i bought a little server (6500T/8GB/250GB) to try proxmox. Installed proxmox, but now - before i install my first VM - i have a few questions: a) What Linux OS do i take? Ubuntu Server? b) Should it be headless? The server is in the cellar of my house, so would there be any advantages of installing an OS with a GUI?

Simple guide to self hosted authentication?
I'd like to set up my identity and authentication service for my self hosted applications but it is not a beginner friendly subject. I'm aware of the various tools available; authentik, authelia, LLDAP, keycloak, etc and see lots of useful discussions on them which is great. But I can't seem to find a beginner friendly introduction to setting up one or more of these tools that helps me understand the core concepts at the same time. Does such a thing exist? I'd like to try out LLDAP and Authelia on my home lab and then possibly roll this out to my production services. But every tutorial I've come across seems to assume a fair amount of knowledge that I don't think I have. For instance if I deploy LLDAP what should I use as my base DN? And how can I seperate a homelab directory from a seperate production directory? Any pointers gratefully received.

[Help] Dropped connections to VM with multiple interfaces.
I'm not sure where to start with to troubleshoot this. I segregated my network into a few different VLANs (servers, workstations, wifi, etc...). I have VMs and LxC containers running in Proxmox, routing is handled by Opnsense, and I have a couple tplink managed switches. All of this is working fine except for 1 problem. I have a couple systems (VM and LxC) that have interfaces on multiple VLANs. If I SSH to one of these systems, on the IP that's on the same VLAN as the client, it works fine. If I SSH to one of the other IPs it'll initially connect and work but within a minute or so the connection hangs and times out. I tried running ssh in verbose mode and got this, which seems fairly generic: ``` debug3: recv - from CB ERROR:10060, io:00000210BBFC6810 debug3: send packet: type 1 debug3: send - WSASend() ERROR:10054, io:00000210BBFC6810 client_loop: send disconnect: Connection reset debug3: Successfully set console output code page from 65001 to 65001 debug3: Successfully set console input code page from 65001 to 65001 ``` I realize the simple solution is to just use the IP on the same subnet, but my current DNS setup doesn't allow for me to provide responses based on client subnet. I'd also like to better understand (and potentially) solve this problem. Thanks

Alternatives to RancherOS?
Hi all! I've been using RancherOS for years as the minimal OS to host all of my containers and it's been working great. Until today. I updated Redis to its latest version, and got some errors. After some investigation I found that in needs Docker 20 or higher to run. RancherOS has been abandoned, and the latest version you can install is 19. Do you fine folks know something similar to RancherOS? Thanks!

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